Different Types of Masonry Bonds| Stretcher Bond | Flemish Bond | English Bond
What is a Bond?/ Masonry Bonds
A bond is an arrangement of masonry units in successive causes to tie the masonry together, both longitudinally and transversely. The arrangement is usually worked out to ensure that no vertical joint of one course exactly over the one in the next course above are below it, and there is a maximum possible amount of lab
Bonding provides strength and stability to the brick structure. A properly bonded wall can receive a heavy load and will distribute the load over a large number of bricks, which in turn will distribute the load over a larger area of ground.
Structural Walls and Decorative Walls
Structural walls require some type of structural bond, while decorative walls may use any bond pattern.
Types of Masonry Bonds
There are many different types of brick bonds, and each has its own look, installation challenges, and structural consideration. Following different types of commonly used masonry bonds.
- Stretcher bond
- Header bond.
- English bond
- Flemish bond
A Stretcher Bond is a simple and easiest bond to work with and bricks are staggered by half brick from the course above and below in a classic one over two patterns.
All bricks are laid lengthwise, with the long sides facing out, recommended for walls of half brick wide.
An example; partition walls, it is used for cavity walls as less cutting is required. Ensures that no two adjacent vertical joints should be in line.
Header bonds are running bond patterns with intermittent courses of bricks laid with their hands facing out, often used for double thickness walls so that header bricks are flush on the ends with two stretchers laid side by side.
It does not have the strength to transmit pressure in the direction of the war length. It gives 23 centimeters thick wall with five centimeters lap in each course.
It takes a much greater number of bricks and is used for architectural purposes.
English bond in this bond even courses laid as stretcher course, while the odd course is laid as header course. English bond is easy in laying it down. It can be about an even course.
Queen closer is placed to get the finished look wherever required.
If the wall is one brick to brick and so on, there will be headers on the face and headers on the back of the wall in the same course. Similarly stretches on the face and stretches on the back of the wall in the same course. If the thickness of the wall is 1.5 brick and 2.5 brick and so on, there will be stretches on the face and headers on the back.
In Flemish bond the stretcher and head are laid alternatively, that is after each stretcher, one header is laid. A larger volume of bond mortar in Flemish bond type specimen produces lower strength Comparison to English style bond since mortar has lower resistance than break units. When we need 13.5-inch wall thickness and Flemish born then half bats are centrally located.
A large number of half bats are used in Flemish bond
Rat Trap Bond
In Rat trap bond bricks are laid on the edges. This safe smarter and breaks up to 20 to 30% without compromising with strength. Sometimes we use unusable aggregate are used to fill the gap between them.
For example, in 1 m cubed work, we need 375 bricks in this bond, but in English bond, we need 450 bricks normally used in green buildings.
Unless otherwise specified by the architect, the bonding of the brickwork shall be as follows;
- Walls of one brick thickness and over- English bond
- Walls of half brick thickness -stretcher bond
Key Points About Brick bonds
- The bricks are of uniforms size.
- The laying pattern of the bricks is uniformed throughout the wall.
- Half bricks are used as little as possible.
- The vertical joints are not continuous except at the stopped ends.
- The joints in every other course should be vertical over one another in the course.
Wall Types in Masonry Work.
Brick wall can be classified according to two types namely:
- Load bearing capacity
- Bricklaying pattern
They are further grouped into
- Half brick walls
- Full brick wall,
- One half brick wall
- Two brick walls
Half Brick Walls
Half brick wall referred to as 115 millimeters thick wall. The thickness of a wall equal to the thickness of a brick’s width. Ensure no two successive vertical joints fall in one line along with the height of the wall.
They’re generally used as internal partition walls.
Full Brick Walls
Full brick wall referred to as 230 millimeters thick wall. A wall having a thickness equal to the length of a brick. At the ending of the wall, a half-brick is used to avoid vertical joints falling in the same line.
These walls are used as external walls as it prevents moisture from seeping through the walls.
One Half Bricks Wall
One half brick wall referred to as a 14-inch-thick wall. It is a wall having a thickness equal to the length of 1.5 bricks.
The bricks are laid as one stretcher and one header courses alternately. In the stretcher course, one brick is laid as a stretcher forming one side of the wall, and every such stretcher holds a pair of headers that form the other side of the wall.
They are usually used as a load-bearing wall carrying the weight of a slab
Two Brick Wall
Two brick walls referred to as 18-inch-thick walls. It is a wall having a thickness equal to the length of two bricks.
The bricks are laid in one stretcher and one header courses alternately. In the stretcher course one brick each is laid as a stretcher at the front and the back of the wall and a pair of bricks is laid as headers between them.
They are usually used as a load-bearing wall carrying the weight of a slab. They are used for walls with a height greater than 12 ft, such as in godowns.
Load Bearing Capacity
A building is basically subjected to two types of loads, namely;
- Vertical loads on account of dead loads of materials used in construction, plus live loads due to occupancy,
- Lateral loads due to the wind and seismic forces. While all walls, in general, can take vertical loads, the ability of a wall to take lateral loads depends on its disposition in relation to the direction of lateral load.
Walls are differentiated into two types.
- Load Bearing Work
- Non-Load Bearing.
Load Bearing Wall.
It is a wall that will bear all the weight of the house. The materials used to construct load-bearing walls in large buildings are concrete block or brick.
It helps in separating spaces and also provides support for anything that is above them. It is the easiest form of construction
Non-Load Bearing Wall
It carries only its own weight. It is used to close in a steel or concrete frame building. It is usually carried by supports, normally steel shelf angles at each floor, and is called a panel wall.
Other types of walls include:
The other type of wall is a retaining wall, which is used to retain the natural soil pressure. Stability should be checked against sliding and overturning. Weep holes are provided to release the water pressure constructed at one number with three square meters of the surface area created filter is provided near the weep holes to prevent the drained off the earth particles.
A cavity wall is a wall that is constructed by providing a gap in between the thickness of either sided wall, which may differ. Usually, the cavity wall is constructed to get thermal insulation